2.6 Knowledge & Power

"This is the bitterest pain among men, to have much knowledge but no power."

Herodotus, <425 BC

'Knowledge is Power' is a common saying, but in this work, the two concepts
are quite distinct, but no doubt related. Today, information and data have
become synonymous with knowledge and technology has become
synonymous with Power. Knowledge has been reduced to an equation and
Power resides in a smarter and smarter machine. Wise philosophers in no
less than prestigious  universities talk about the ever increasing computing
power that will eventually make our biological bodies redundant by

uploading the 'Self ' into huge computers, even making copies or clones
of  the 'Self', or rather, the Digital  Self.  The only problem that these
philosophers so wisely foresee is: what will happen to the properties that
belong to these 'transhuman ' Digital  Self''s ?

"Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?"
T. S. Eliot

"I think that only daring speculation can lead us further and not
accumulation of facts.".......Albert Einstein

"This has become a double world - on the one hand it has become
as rational as it could ever be - down to the smallest detail there
 has been developed what universities call knowledge (which I
view as merely information rather than knowledge ) - we have
tons of it - a world filled with instrumental rationality - the kind
that is measurable and quantifiable. This kind of technical reason
produces a situation in which human beings themselves don't
feel rational."
……..Rick Roderick ( Self Under Siege )

For the purpose of this work, knowledge is defined as a quality or

resource that brings forth (or at least has the potential to bring forth)

results in fulfilling the goal or purpose of that individual.

Knowledge is the bond between a set of learned or developed beliefs/

concepts and the reality that they represent or refer to.

"Asked whether he believed in God, Carl Jung replied 'I don't
believe, I know.".....From T. B. Bowden

Knowledge is the experimental process by which beliefs/concepts

are tested for their validity, applicability and limits for that


The key questions that help to clarify this process are; What is the need,

the necessity to know something? What is the purpose for which

knowledge is being sought?

What is it that one must know? What is at stake?

"All knowledge is dependent upon the question asked"......T. McKenna

For most people the general answer is: survival and social status.

For far fewer people the general answer is: enhancing understanding,

attaining practical wisdom about the best way to live, to make the right

choices and to attain a state where this knowledge becomes power so

that one's life is constructive or creative not only for oneself (personally

valid) but also be an inspiring force for others ( generally valid).

The acquisition, generation, development and enhancement of knowledge

 is thus an interactive process in which expressions of any kind plays a

 central role in the feedback necessary for the development of knowledge

into power. ( according to the talents or uniqueness of the being)

"Shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing,
to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to
allow that you do not know it. The essence of knowledge is,
having it, to apply it; not having it, to confess your ignorance"

Abstract of Knowledge: An interactive process that engages a being's

 resources, faculties and talents that results in the generation, regeneration,

 creation or acquisition of a relationship between the being and its

interactive environment.

"We believe that ideas—and thus, films—only become great when
they are challenged and tested"....Ed Catmull

[Web Interactive Note 2013: What is knowledge? It is the ordering of data/information
 in the mind of a being that is oriented or organized to accomplish the goals or purposes
 of the being. What is that one needs to know? By default and at birth this need, this
goal is survival and procreation. This default remains the most overpowering control
 factor for the being throughout its lifespan. This becomes complex as the being grows
 in a social system to attach and morph itself with the controls imposed by society and
 the default reaction to this is to impose control over society. However, these defaults
 and their social morphology can be over-ridden by goals or purposes, motives and
 emotions of a higher order internally generated if and when a consciousness within
 the being develops of purposes, motives or emotions higher than or transcending
that of mere survival and social status.
What is at stake beyond survival and social acceptability?

Data/information/ knowledge is acquired through interaction with 1) the external
 physical world through the sensory systems 2) by non-sensory or extra-sensory
 perception of/from non-physical realms (this is synthetic by its very nature)
3) revealed from sources unknown/unknowable (again this is synthetic).

Knowledge is developed through the 1) intuitive process by insight or spontaneous
 synthesis (creative) of available information 2) through the linear rational
 process by the construction of a coherent structure of available information.

Knowledge that reaches a critical level of development and integration,
 and is forcefully applied becomes Power.
This development of knowledge into power can be positive (creative)
or negative (destructive or negatively creative).]

What is of utmost significance is what me mean by "knowledge"
itself. If all we mean by knowledge is knowing of something,
 then that by itself is as good as just data or information.
For example we can say that a computer is informative, but we
cannot say that a computer is knowledgeable. Because how the
 information is going to be processed, analyzed and handled are
 all programmed externally by human beings, although it can get
 quite complex. The meaning of knowledge therefore is not only
 incomplete without the application or applicability of knowing
something, but also that without this application, knowledge
 becomes just data or information without any value. And then
 again this applicability is for what purpose and what end is the
 other criteria without which knowledge again becomes
Since application and the purpose or direction of this application
 are criteria that are attributes of an individual being, then knowledge
 in its complete meaning is purely individual. This is a total antithesis
of "scientific knowledge" that is presumed to be necessarily
"objective", which implies - independent of individual considerations.

"Knowledge was inherent in all things. The world was a library and its books
were the stones, leaves, grass, brooks and the birds and animals that shared,
alike with us, the storms and blessings of the earth. We learn to do what only
the student of nature ever learns, and that is to feel beauty. We never rail at
the storms, the furious winds, the biting frosts and snows. To do so intensifies
human futility, so whatever comes we should adjust ourselves by more effort
and energy if necessary, but without complaint. Bright days and dark days are
both expressions of the Great Mystery, and the Indian reveled in being
close to the Great Holiness." ...............Chief Luther Standing Bear

"It is an initiation into the love of learning, of learning how to learn . . . . as
a matter of interdisciplinary cognition - that is, learning to know something
by its relation to something else."......
Leonard Bernstein

"Meno does not want to exert himself. All good students must exert
themselves, not just the teacher. Only if both are exerting themselves
to the utmost will you get the results that we can potentially hope for
in  a good class in philosophy or in Socratic dialogs. When you read the
dialogs ask yourself  : is this interlocutor working  hard ? Is he breaking
 into a sweat ? If he is then possibly we are going to make some progress
even if at the end of the dialog we don't know what justice and knowledge
is. The difference between Theatetus and Meno is that although neither
comes to a conclusion of what knowledge or virtue is, Theatetus improves
because he has broken into a sweat - he knows the domain
of his ignorance....TTC M. Sugrue

Knowledge in this work does not mean just data, but rather the

applicability and the  structural order of the data in the mind of a

being -  its valid application for personal as well as general use.

The concept of  knowledge is also contrasted with the concept of

imagination: an internal process of knowledge generation. Thus

imagination is in a way the activity that is the source of knowledge.

But knowledge is truly generated only when imaginative activity

then is followed by the systematization and rationalization process

in which interactions and expressions play vital roles.

" I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination.
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world."
........Albert Einstein

What if imagination and art are not frosting at all, but the
fountainhead of human experience? .......Rollo May

"Imagination is the beginning of creation. You imagine what you desire;
you will what you imagine; and at last you create what you will."
..........G. B. Shaw

Power : The forceful application of the held knowledge of a

being that results not only in enhancing that knowledge, but

also results in enhancing life in the interactive environment.

POWER: The ability and control over one's faculties and resources that

have to be put to use in the development and application of knowledge

 appropriate to one's predilection, will and talents. Power, like knowledge

has both positive (creative) as well as negative (destructive)


"There is first the literature of KNOWLEDGE, and secondly, the literature of
POWER. The function of the first is -- to teach; the function of the second
 is -- to move".....Thomas De Quincey

All humanity is divided into three classes: those who are immovable, those
 who are movable, and those who move! (Benjamin Franklin)

"It is a sad reflection . . . that a sense of responsibility which comes
with power is the rarest of things"......
Alexander Crummell

" Nietzsche is supposed to hold the scandalous view  that knowledge is
a form of power. It's scandalous because ( the usual notion of ) knowledge
is objective knowledge  - and it would be scandalous to show that wherever
we find knowledge, we will find that it is constructed around systems of
power. You won't find one without the other.
I can  grant you that nothing
of great importance to human values hangs on ( mathematical like 2+2=4 )
truths that everyone can find acceptable, and they are acceptable precisely
because nothing of great human importance hangs on them. The moment you
go a little beyond them in any direction, then the dispute starts and then power
at some point has to insert itself. An important part of
Nietzsche's investigation
is this inter-relation between knowledge and power
- especially forms of
ethical behavior."
……..Rick Roderick ( TTC – Philosophy and Human Values )

"What would virtue have to be in order for it to be teachable? Answer: knowledge.
Knowledge in the strict sense: 'episteme' in Greek. In other words, for virtue to be
teachable, it would have to be rational. And what would such a rational virtue look
like?  Socrates now gets Meno to agree that things like strength, beauty and wealth
are all generally thought of as good, but may in fact be bad. Only a kind of knowledge
that would tell us how best to make use of these things would be virtue.
Here Socrates attempts to elevate Meno's earlier and crude understanding of what's
good ( for Meno this was money and power). In fact these things can be ruinous to
people, and only knowledge of how to use them render them good in fact.
All the individual virtues, including justice and courage, etc, would be true virtues
only when they are guided by the knowledge in question. Courage, for example
in the absence of knowledge, would be nothing more than recklessness, or
over-boldness. Such knowledge would have to include two things at least:
knowledge of the human good, of what it really is - the true human need, and
the knowledge of the circumstances. I suggest that this is a pretty tall order.
The standard that Socrates has in mind, or the goal of this rational virtue is
the 'happiness', the 'eudaemonia' of the virtuous. Virtue understood in this
way then, because it is knowledge, would be teachable.
According to Plato any epistemological question is also necessarily a
political one, as we saw in The Republic - the famous image of the cave.
All of us are born in families and political communities of some kind, and
these communities provide us with not only food and shelter, but also
education - of what is good and evil, what is admirable, what is shameful.
Now Socrates reintroduces the idea that virtue must consist in service
to others, above all, in service to our political community. And this virtue,
Socrates doubts, is teachable. In this dialog could Plato be showing us
the limits of the teachable character of virtue? At least of that character
 of virtue that is teachable. At a minimum one would need not only a good
teacher, but also a suitable nature, a good nature (of the pupil).
.....TTC Bartlett


Personal Validity & Knowledge - The Relationship

"There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond,
and to know one's self"....Benjamin Franklin

"There must be a happy medium somewhere between being totally
informed and blissfully unaware"...Doug Larson

Personal Validity is the Knowledge of Oneself, that is, your Personal

Validity is the measure of how well you know and apply yourself.

This application is an interactive process in which the already held

knowledge is tested for its validity. It is this interactive process

and its results that enhances the knowledge, so that it becomes

powerful or acquires power and potency.

"All essential knowledge relates to existence, or only such knowledge
as has an essential relationship to existence is essential knowledge"

"I know myself," he cried, "but that is all.".......F. S Fitzgerald

Personal Validity is power manifest as knowledge, which

transforms into forceful, right understanding and action.

  " Knowledge is proportionate to being....You know in virtue of

what you are"......Huxley

Knowledge is the glue that binds our conceptual-experiential structure.

It is a two way relationship between experience and conceptualization.

It is thus firstly an internal interactive process between experience and

conceptualization, and then an interactive process between

conceptualization and expression.

Finally from expressions that interact externally that lead to fresh or

refined concepts, to novel experiences.

It is the relationship and the creative force between beliefs

and results arising out of the application of these beliefs.

It is the applicability and validity of ideas, assumptions, beliefs

experiences and experiments.

"The passionate controversies of one era are viewed as sterile
preoccupations by another, for knowledge alters what we seek
as well as what we find"....Freda Adler

This concept of knowledge requires a subdivision into two

categories in order to further our understanding :

Personal and General

[One of the underlying assumptions in this work is that know-

ledge is created initially by an individual first, and then formulated 

( given form or expression ) and finally either accepted or

rejected by others. ]

 "The major relationship to the self is and had to be essentially a
relationship of knowledge. The self has to be considered not as a
reality which is  hidden - the self has to be considered as a co-relate
of technologies built and developed through our history.
"The problem then is not to free or liberate the self but to consider
how the self could make it possible to elaborate new kinds and types
 of relationships to ourselves""....Foucault

Personal Knowledge or Subjective Knowledge

" In  the province  of  the mind, what one believes to be true is true or
becomes  true,  within  certain  limits to be found   experientially and
experimentally. These limits are further  beliefs  to be transcended.
In the mind,  there are no limits." (Lilly, 1972).

Knowledge created by an individual for the application of

enhancing oneself or to accomplish one's goals.

"Creative activity described as a type of learning process where teacher
and pupil are located in the same individual.".........Arthur Koestler

Knowledge that is personal is created by that individual through the

application of ideas, testing and experimenting of assumptions and

beliefs, through re-conceptualization of learned concepts ( or

programs) and also through sources or means that are unknown .

[WEB interactive 2012 : Knowledge is not necessarily revealed by divine
entities but the really important knowledge comes from within, and certainly
 not from mere data or mathematical equations about material objects and
 as I have already mentioned, the inner resources of an autonomous
individual are what really matter.]

This knowledge may then be given form (formulated) i.e.

expressed through  language, art , symbolism etc.

"The only good is knowledge, and the only evil is ignorance"....Socrates

"To optimally understand what I am going to tell you is going to require two
things of you: you need to be open minded and  you need to be skeptical.
Both are very important. Open mind because to get to the big picture you
will have to transcend all paradigms. To leap over cultural beliefs and
personal beliefs because that is the nature of breakthrough.
Skeptical, because without skepticism you cannot convert belief
into knowledge. Believing in what I tell you does not create a
fundamental knowing that is true. Only experience can do that."
............Tom Campbell.

"There is a complexity and ambiguity that all human beings
incorporate. Certitude is always dangerous when we try to
understand people or perhaps even ourselves."
........TTC Peter Conn



On the other hand this personal knowledge may remain unformulated, 

that is, not given form. The individual may be unwilling to do so, that is, 

have no desire or goal to do so, or no fulfillment is realized in expressing

 or formulating it, or is simply unable to do so due to the individual's own

limitations as regarding the means (language) to do so. This knowledge

 is therefore purely personal, and other individuals can possibly only

acquire it through close personal contact . At the present time this kind

 of knowledge is generally considered to be either of no consequence or

rather no knowledge at all. Another possibility is that the individual gives

form to personal knowledge for internal or self use only, that is, giving

expression or form to one's personal knowledge either provides

fulfillment or further enhances personal knowledge.

General acceptability of this expression is of secondary or no importance

 to that individual, however this knowledge does not become power

unless it is exposed and tested in a wider world, in a social, political




" Much knowledge if out of proportion to the disposition of forces, is
invalid, however formally correct it may be." ...........Theodor Adorno

"learning without thought is pointless, thought without learning is

Knowledge that is given form is usually in relation to the forms

(linguistic) that have been acquired from society and developed as

analogies, models and meta-programs and so this form-relationship

also plays an important role in formulated knowledge.

Unformulated knowledge remains by and large detached from

this relationship, and by its nature is much more fluid and its

pragmatic application is instantaneous, and therefore should

by rule of thumb and in essence be primary to any formulation.

Modern education however suffers from this serious defect in

making and emphasizing formulated knowledge as the dominant,

primary, and almost as if the only valid kind of knowing.

"It seems a pity that psychology should have destroyed all our
knowledge of human nature."  ..........Chesterton

Naturally, modern ignorance of and prejudice against intimate psychic experiences
 dismiss them as psychic anomalies and put them in psychiatric pigeon-holes without
making the least attempt to understand them. ~Carl Jung




There are several stages for the continuing development of knowledge, basically;

 1) Skepticism/doubt/disbelief,

2) Belief (which involves a 'leap' into possibility)

3) Knowledge - when and how belief becomes true/is valid

4) Limits - when and how a belief no longer holds true/invalid in which you
 revert to the skeptic stage

 5) Certainty - when certain belief holds true for oneself, no matter what

- here knowledge transforms into power - this last stage is a very tricky and

fragile stage because it can lead to a false sense of security.

" For Kierkegaard like Socrates the task in philosophy was not to build
a system of knowledge ( Hegel)  but to take down our pretensions to
 more than we really know.".....BBC Discussion on Kierkegaard

"What the gentleman seeks is in himself, what the inferior man seeks
is in others. A gentleman agrees with others without echo, the small
man echoes without being in agreement."......Confucius

Here it is useful to distinguish between Real Knowledge and True

Knowledge. Real Knowledge is unformulated and always manifests

instantaneously and therefore is fleeting and un-definable, yet eternal.

True Knowledge is formulated or expressed Real Knowledge, and

therefore has temporary or transitory and limited validity.

" Our knowledge can only be finite, while our ignorance must

necessarily be infinite "....Karl Popper

True knowledge is the valid expression, knowing and applicability

of Real knowledge, and is valid only for a certain time, situation

or context. Real knowledge, although absolute, therefore has no

direct manifestation, but manifests on the spur of the moment as

a force or power that gives direction, generates or modifies the

existing knowledge.  This results  in an enhanced order of the

knowledge held by a being by enhancing not only the truth of

that knowing, but also enhances the ability of the being to

rightly and forcefully apply that knowing. This ability is what

is called here as power.

" Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's ignorance "

Knowledge realized as forceful action or expression is Power.

Real knowledge or power can only be sustained by putting

one's held knowledge to continuous test in current reality.

"The measure of a man is what he does with power."

"Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's
character, give him power." - Abraham Lincoln

Power is only as good and effective as it is usable and

exercisable, AND more importantly, IS put to use

and exercised.

"Leadership is the wise use of power. Power is the capacity to
translate intention into reality and sustain it".......Warren Bennis

" For Nietzsche the Christian morality that grew out of the slave context meant
 that its doctrines of love and compassion were rooted in the resentment of a
 power that could not exercise itself. One of the things that slaves have a problem
 with is that they have powers too but are constrained from exercising them."
 ..........Rick Roderick ( TTC – Philosophy and Human Values )

The judicious use of power enhances it, is creative, but its

disuse depletes it into apathy, and its injudicious use

is destructive.

" Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge
without integrity is dangerous and dreadful ".......Samuel Johnson



"Ideas won't keep. Something must be done about them."
..........Alfred North Whitehead

"Vision without action is a daydream. Action with without vision
is a nightmare." - Japanese Proverb

It is clear therefore that real knowledge, which manifests as power

is a personal knowing or personal power ( insofar as one is capable

of beholding it ) and cannot be expressed directly,  at best finds

indirect expression in creative artistic form or forceful action.

And so has no general validity  in  its  expression, since in the

process of its non-artistic expression it turns into plain knowledge.

Meaning, that  any classic expression does not necessarily enhance

the order of the agreed upon knowledge held by the social system.

Expressed  knowledge  in   artistic  form  has  the greatest potential,

although  it  cannot  be   agreed upon, due to its artistic nature, but

in a rigid or non-artistic form has a misleading and even destructive

tendency although can more easily be agreed upon.

And that is the feature of all agreed upon knowledge - that is, its

potential for general abuse is as great as, if not more than its use.

Knowledge that is not directly related to the Self, is by default, dangerous.

But to the wary, alert, aware and honest person it presents a challenge that

tests the worth of that person on the path of learning about being human.

"If a little knowledge is dangerous, where is the man who has so
much as to be out of danger?"............T. H. Huxley

“Courage is a special kind of knowledge: the knowledge of how to fear what
ought to be feared and how not to fear what ought no to be feared.”

"Doubt is not below knowledge, but above it".........Emile Chartier



" What use is it that knowledge mounts?
It's knowing something good that counts"...Friedrich von Logau

"I have learned throughout my life as a composer chiefly through my
mistakes and pursuits of false assumptions, not my exposure to
founts of wisdom and knowledge."......Igor Stravinsky

"It would be better not to know so many things than to know so
many things that are not so"....Felix

“A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers.”

All knowing that has been force fed into someone, without any interest,

Will  or  volition on part of the subject,  is fake or misleading knowledge

since it deflects the subject from the free will and nature of the person.

Most modern education fits into this category, as it just serves the

function of programming people to respond in a predetermined

manner that increasingly resembles that of machines or even

more correctly - computerized robots.

" There was never an age in which useless knowledge was more
important than in our own"......C. E. M. Joad

Fake knowledge kills the creativity, drive and uniqueness of individuals

and this work takes a stand against this type of knowledge.

"The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
With loads of learned lumber in his head."
.......Alexander Pope

"Indiscriminate study bloats the mind"......D Sutten

“Knowledge which is acquired under compulsion
obtains no hold on the mind.”


2.6.7 Knowledge - Power Summary

"The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any
member of a civilized community, against their will is to prevent harm to
others. Their own good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant."
............John Stuart Mill

Knowledge  with  moral  power  is  constructive,  i.e.,  true knowledge ;

creativity is real knowledge, i.e., power expressed as artistic knowledge;

and knowledge without moral power is destructive, at best misleading,

i.e., fake knowledge.

Power or real knowledge is the potent and forceful combination

of Will and Spirit. 

The spirit of Nietzsche is that of deep suspicion - the suspicion that
power is intertwined with things that we normally like to think of even
today as not being dependent on power, eg : truth, goodness and so
on. Nietzsche says they are, and this is also indicated by History.
……..Rick Roderick ( TTC – Philosophy and Human Values )


KNOWLEDGE - TRUE Knowledge POWER - REAL Knowledge
Is Limited to Cause- Effect relationships, learned, acquired or developed, linearly applicable, and Static. Is Limited only to human potential limitations, Is Causative or forceful, independent of cause-effects, therefore instantly or dynamically applicable.
Does not command or force a being to act. Acts are forced from and dependent upon external circumstances Commands, forces or moves a being to act from within. Acts are forced from within, independent of the force of external circumstances.
Has an underlying order and structure. By itself cannot overcome structural limitations, only by Will. Has no structure, form or order, and transcends structure and underlying order of concepts and beliefs.
By itself is neither constructive nor destructive, only machine like, combined with Will becomes constructive or destructive. Combined with will, causes or forces to be creative or constructive,  in the absence of will is neutral, but inhibits destructive behavior.
Reason and analysis dominant Intuitive, instinctive dominant.
Redundant, superfluous knowledge inhibits power, appropriate knowledge structure, order and efficiency  leads to manifest power. Manifestation of power enhances knowledge application and efficiency, leads to seek right knowledge.
Knowledge is a test of power, or true knowledge is a test of real knowledge, i.e., how accurately truth in thought, experience and action reflects reality or real knowledge. Power is enhanced ( for a being) by the creative and accurate exercise and testing of knowledge, power is depleted ( for a being) by wrong ( destructive) use of knowledge. 


" Let me sum it up for you. Information is not knowledge. Knowledge is not wisdom.

Wisdom is not truth. Truth is not beauty. Beauty is not love.

Love is not music. Music is the best."

Frank Zappa

The above comparison highlights the fact that knowledge without power is

at best only data or information, and at worst has a negative value, that is,

it either obscures and diminishes one's potential,  or is outright destructive.


While most knowledge is forced by society upon individuals as a result of the

socialization process, and a great percentage of it is redundant and even

downgrading to most people, a certain basic knowledge is essential, mostly

that which enhances language and communication skills.

"  The   true  lover  of  knowledge  naturally  strives  for   truth,  and is not
content with common opinion, but soars with undimmed and unwearied
passion till he grasps the essential nature of things.".......Plato

Power however always comes from within, from the right kind of knowing

that conforms to and harmonizes one's inner predilections and uniqueness

and not according to social demands and conformity.

For power to meaningfully manifest in a being usually also means a deadly

conflict with social norms or conformity ( socially, culturally acquired beliefs),

but must resolve in a creative manner - in power, although at times it may

even be physiologically  detrimental  in  the  process,  but   the  fear of that

should not be a deterrent.

Power therefore can only manifest as valid knowledge, valid for a particular

being, for a particular situation, for a particular time, in a particular social,

cultural context. Therefore to have a valid knowledge base is the essential

requirement but which can only be self-developed and realized .

" What Nietzsche is trying to show is that knowledge, truth, objectivity,
good and bad have conditions for possibility and those conditions for
possibility change. It's not that everything is relative - that is not part
of the argument. It's that there are conditions within which evaluations
take place that themselves require analysis."

……..Rick Roderick ( TTC – Philosophy and Human Values )


The Development of Knowledge into

Power as an Interactive Process

"There is no royal road to knowledge. You must be willing to exert
yourself with the living human voice. Socrates shows us that you
cannot study philosophy without engaging with others - you cannot be
a hermit and live the Socratic life ( of inquiry). Socrates is a creature
of the polis. If Socrates could have done it (without the polis), he would
 have gone to some mountain top. The only way he could have done it is by
living in the city among living human beings where he could find the
living voice - to participate in the logos. If you can come up with better,
higher and finer ideas than those in the dialogs then that is a culmination
 of Socratic philosophy and not an undermining of it. It is because of the
fact that Socrates represents the living voice that Socrates will never be
superseded. The best that any teacher can do is to drive you towards the
dialogs, and the best that the dialogs can do is drive you towards the
human voice, and the best that the human voice can do is to drive you
towards the knowledge of yourself by creating self knowledge in other
people, and you can only do this linguistically, for the self is constructed
in language in the loving struggle to create intelligibility, to create order,
to create a construction of the soul in which all the parts are doing what
they ought to do - how the better part of your nature should take control
of the worst, the ungainly, the disorganized.
Socrates offers us the drive towards perfection. Once we organize the
chaos within we can begin to organize the chaos without."
..TTC.. M. Sugrue

The acquisition of knowledge through interest and exercise of

talent can only be developed into power through the test and

exposure of its validity and applicability where something

vital is at stake. This is essentially an interactive process.

Once developed into power, this power is sustained only through

its exercise. The exercise of power is possible only through the

interactive process between:

A) a being and other living beings

B) or between two contrasting contexts

consciously setup within a being.

C) between a being and nature or entities

beyond self.

WARNING ! Any significant interactive process may well mean

a deadly conflict.

"All wish to possess knowledge, but few, comparatively speaking,
are willing to pay the price"....Juvenal

"An idea that is not dangerous is unworthy of being called an
 idea at all." - Oscar Wilde

"One of the greatest joys ( as well as greatest risk ) known to
man is to take a ( deliberate ) flight into ignorance in search
of knowledge.".........Robert Lynd

Power once it begins manifestation can only be

held as long as it is exercised rightly in the process

of testing and enhancing knowledge.

" Until knowledge is understood in human and political terms as something
to be won to the service of coexistence and community, not of particular
races,  nations,  or religions,  the  future  augurs  badly ".........E. W. Said

"In right knowledge the study of man must proceed on parallel lines with the study
 of the world, and the study of the world must run parallel with the study of man"

"The ancients did think highly of obedience to authority because they meant by
authority - not power, but goodness. Not might, but right. Authority meant moral
power, not political or social power, for them. The Chinese 'de'  means that
moral force that doesn't need or use physical force. The power of moral
goodness that appeals to our conscience and wisdom, not the power
 of rulers and propagandists."
....TMS P. Kreeft

 Agreed upon Knowledge or Objective Knowledge:

"For Kierkegaard truth is subjectivity - for him 'the truth' has to do
 with the individual subject - the personality that is internal to the
 individual. That is, important philosophical questions are ones that
 lead us to ask how the individual subject experiences the world and
 decides to respond to that experience, not how the world is.
 Explicitly, all scientific, objective knowledge is deemed second class
 knowledge. Being human is something that cannot be understood
 through the kind of rationality that we apply in science. The internal
 is unlike the external."    TTC  L. Cahoone
"The way of objective reflection makes the subject accidental and
thereby transforms existence into something indifferent, something
vanishing. Away from the subject, the objective way of reflecting,
leads to the objective truth, and while the subject and his subjectivity
become indifferent, truth also becomes indifferent, and this indifference
is precisely its objective validity, for all interest, like all decisiveness
is rooted in subjectivity.
The way of objective reflection leads to abstract thought, to mathematics,
 to historical knowledge of different kinds. Always it leads away from the
subject, whose existence or non-existence, and rightly so, becomes
infinitely indifferent. "..........Soren Kierkegaard

"The existentialists are not ir-rationalists, in the sense that they deny the
validity of logical argument and scientific reasoning, they simply question
the ability of scientific reasoning to access deep personal convictions that
guide our lives."  .........Thomas Flynn


"How could we possibly appreciate the Mona Lisa if Leonardo had written
at the bottom of the canvas: 'The lady is smiling because she is hiding a
secret from her lover.' This would shackle the viewer to reality, and I
don't want this to happen to 2001." --Stanley Kubrik

Knowledge created by an individual or a   group  of  individuals

(network of minds -as termed by Lilly)  and if expressed  and

formulated in terms of mathematical symbols & equations or art

or language or body language or even through extra sensory

means,  and  subsequently   agreed  upon  by  at the very least

one  more individual  is defined   in  this  work  as  agreed upon

knowledge.  If  this   expressed  or  formulated  knowledge  is

accepted   or  absorbed   by  only  one  more  or very few other

individuals (or within a group ): it is termed here as 'Knowledge

of Special Agreement'. In a much wider acceptability this becomes

the' Knowledge of General Agreement ' and finally that knowledge

which can be tested and verified by anybody is labeled here as

Objective Knowledge or Scientific Knowledge, and needs no

further elaboration here, except to add that in its extreme form,

scientific knowledge has been reduced to merely the study and

information accumulation about physical reality, since the only

domain of rigorous general consensus is the physical.

"Plato is not a great fan of the external world, he is not impressed
with the know-ability or even the reality of the senses. He is not
interested in tables or chairs. Plato wants to direct our attention
to the realm of the mind, the realm of pure thought, the realm
of ideas".......TTC M. Sugrue

 Religion ,Family, Society ,Cults and the

Knowledge of Special Agreement.

"There are moments when one is more ashamed of what is called
culture than anyone can ever be of ignorance"...........E. V. Lucas

In  a particular  network or   group of  individuals,  a  set  of fixed

beliefs  becomes  accepted,   agreed  upon,  shared   or common

between  the  individuals.   These  fixed  beliefs are beliefs which

are more or less  not  allowed to be challenged  by the members.

Thus a certain core set of beliefs are considered to be the sacred

binding  force  within  the network and the group remains intact

so long as these beliefs remain intact. Therefore the core or the

fundamental set of unchallenged beliefs constitutes a sort of

"faith" or religion of the community.

Although  inflexible,  this   Knowledge  of  Special Agreement helps

the members of the  community by   providing a sense of  security,

agreement, direction and fulfillment to the construct of their minds,

all  of  which  are  no   doubt  vital  requirements  for  most  human

being's minds.

In  order  to  support and    strengthen these beliefs  further, certain

customs or rituals  or code of  ethics  are prescribed for the members

and thus certain social, and on a wider scale, cultural patterns emerge

which  have  a deep and lasting effect on the construct of the minds of

the individuals of that community or society. Many times, some of these

beliefs/conceptions may also spread to other societies in contact with

a particular society, especially if certain beliefs have apparently

widespread applicability.

(An example of this are scientifically established cause-effect properties

of physical objects (or as objectified by agreement). This has now become

a virtual global religion whereby everybody is now programmed to learn

and accept these cause-effect relationships as absolute truths.)

Clusters  of  such   societies  that have many core beliefs to be

common, lead to "cultures", the differences being only superficial.

So we have another category of knowing and reality : the

cultural reality, also commonly called as the "cultural construct".


Although  a  sense  of   security and relationship are the payoffs

for people in these "cultures ", the cost is in terms of the absence

of  diversity  within  the   culture  which  then  limits  the  potential 

not only of the individuals in these cultures, but also

of the entire culture itself.


"  There is no true expertise in the humanities without knowing all
of the humanities.  Art is a vast, ancient interconnected web-work,
a  fabricated  tradition.  Over-concentration  on any one point is a
distortion. " ..........Camille Paglia

Cultures that totally or at a fundamental level, resist change or do

not critically examine their long held beliefs and their impact upon

society, eventually degenerate and decay although this is never

obvious to members within that society or culture.

" A study of history shows that civilizations that abandon the quest
for knowledge are doomed to disintegration"..........Bernard Lovell

"The apple cannot be stuck back on The Tree of Knowledge; once
 we begin to see, we are doomed and challenged to seek the
 strength to see more, not less"............Arthur Miller

“Mankind will never see an end of trouble until... lovers of wisdom come to
hold political power, or the holders of power... become lovers of wisdom.”


"You commit a sin of omission if you do not utilize all the power that is within you.
All people have claims on man, and to the person with special talents, this is a
very special claim. It is required that a person take part in the actions and
clashes of their time than the peril of being judged not to have lived at all.".
.......Oliver Wendell Holmes
"Socrates is a hero of knowledge and wisdom, not a illiterate hero of death
and violence (like the Homeric hero). Also he is a sort of hero that insists
upon moral order in the world and the idea that there will be an inescapable
moral judgment, which you can't have in the life of an Homeric hero."
......TTC   M. Sugrue

This   article  covered  the  grounds  on  which  all   the  action  of  life  takes  place.
Knowledge  is that ground where power of two kinds battle :  One  that   is  creative
and  the other that destroys. Strangely, no culture emphasizes this fine but definitive
distinction. The only thing that seems to count is 'progress' of loads of information in
science and 'development' of technology. Knowledge is indeed powerful, but this
power cuts both ways.   For  a human being it is essential to 'know ' this, only then
can the destructive be possibly transformed.

"Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad with power".....Charles Beard

The next article is about what knowledge is for, and what directions it takes ( goals )
or  what  direction it can be made to take ( purpose ), what are the key forces that
direct knowledge : Will and Spirit, and finally what are the limits of knowledge and
the given potential of a being's intelligence.

"And yet each of us can carry the torch of knowledge but a part of the way,
until another takes it from him. "..........C. G.

[ Web Interactive 2013:  Essay on Mary Shelly's Frankenstein/ and The Terminator :
 What struck me when I started reading was how the story originated in the mind of Mary
Shelley. In the introduction she mentions that it started with the discussion about the ‘nature
of the principle of life, and whether there was any probability of its ever being discovered
and communicated.’ This wonder about the underlying principle of life has been around
ever since mankind has been on this planet. This was understood by primitive or archaic
man as a force or spirit that animated the body from birth to death.
This knowledge of the archaic man came from their techniques of ecstasy – a state of trance
 whereby the person in this state could communicate with entities of the spirit world as also with
the dead ancestors of the tribe.
In civilization this technique was forgotten. However, often people would come around to
wondering about it, since although any direct experience of the primordial life force was
long lost, the archetype of it was still lingering in the psyche of civilized people.
This archetype of the primordial life force itself triggers a vision in the mind of Mary and unfolds
 in the form of a figure (the yet to be character of Victor Frankenstein) that dares to animate a
corpse. The idea behind it - that man could discover a means of reanimating the dead or
generate life from the inanimate, is seemingly an exciting idea but the vision is indicative
 of terrible consequences - it terrifies her.
The archetype plays out truly in the story written by her husband – that any such human
attempt, even if partly successful, say in the form of intelligent machines, would inevitably
 end up in disaster. It is a prophetic and tragic story of mankind’s inevitable attempts to
discover and simulate life and intelligence from matter (the spirit has already been
exorcized) through science and technology, the consequences of which will also
inevitably lead to destruction.
Reference:- Mary Shelly's chilling account of her vision from which the story emerged
Pages ix, x, and xi of the introduction - pdf version

Post Essay Notes : I noticed that the Frankenstein story has a similar theme and archetypal
imagery as The Terminator - written by James Cameron. There is also an interesting comparison
that can be made with Goethe's Faust. "While James Cameron was on a trip to Italy he became
very ill with high fever. One night he had a terrible nightmare about a huge robot with red-glowing
eyes that was trying to kill him. This was his very first "vision" of the terminator robot. "  Wiki
THE CONCLUSION: The positive aspect of reality can only be revealed (which is veiled in the
temporal realm of space-time) by taking a plunge into the negative and when faced with
death or destruction, the ascension into the positive becomes possible.]

NEXT PAGE 10 : Potential, goals, will..



epistemology, philosophy, metaphysics, religion, belief, system, social, cultural, paradigm, knowledge,
ontology, power, moral, fundamental, force, Will, Spirit, Intent, knowing, Heart, Mind, reason, intuition,
autonomous, unique, being, existence, space, time, meaning, purpose

GrossRyder Gross Ryder grossryder G RYDER GROSS RYDER