and LIMITS : Forces, Controls and Processes

"You cannot travel on the path until you become the path itself"


This  article  deals  with certain key aspects of the self, mainly of the forces acting upon the

control and  processes within a being that direct the actions of a being. The awareness of

these forces is vital for providing the necessary handle for the Self in order to attain mastery

over internal control and  processes, to get to the totality of the Self - which means the

development and completeness of the given  potential of a being.  

Several  major concepts  are dealt with in substantial detail,  all  of  which are vital and

indispensable,    but   of  course,  inter-related  and inter-connected,  and  it  is  this  inter

-relationship   that  is  the  crux of this article.  But the central force of a Being - the Will is the

key that connects everything and so the concept of the Will is crucial for understanding

the inter-relationship between the forces, controls and processes of the Self.  The integrity

( the extent of integration ! ) of  the Self  depends upon the inter-relation and coordination

of these three aspects.  The Spirit is indispensable for the moral integrity of a Being, and

so that is also covered in detail in this article. In a well integrated Self, the distinguishing

lines between these tend  to disappear  or dissolve, however   their  usefulness  for  the

intellect continues   ( as tools for expression ) even after that.


2.7.1 GOALS 

"Any man who has known real loves, real revolts, real desires, and real Will
knows quite well that he has no need of any  guarantee  to be sure of his
goals; their certitude comes from his own drive." .......Simone de Beauvoir

"Goal setting is obviously a powerful process...the manifestation of creative
imagination and independent will. It's the practicality of...translating vision
into achievable,  actionable doing."      ......  Stephen R. Covey

"Goals provide the energy source that powers our lives. One of the best
ways we can get the most from the energy we have is to focus it. That
is what goals can do for us; concentrate our energy".....Denis Waitley


"A goal is nothing more than a dream with a time limit"......Joe Griffith

Identified as programs or conditions or states of the mind which influence or

control or initiate or generate other programs or states in order to achieve a

state of  fulfillment, satisfaction, happiness  or pleasure.

( or avoid a state of pain, etc)

Basically it refers to a desired state of mind which, when fulfilled, can said

to have achieved that goal sought after.

"Goals too clearly defined can become blinkers".....Mary Catherine Bateson

It can also be defined as a desire for or a striving for something- a state of

mind or a state of being or for the accomplishment of a physical, mental

or material task. Goals are control programs that are generated when

we desire or strive for a state of being that will fulfill (a state of

fulfillment ) those desires.

If I had one wish for my children, it would be that each of them would reach
for goals that have meaning for them as individuals.".......Lillian Carter

"Lord, grant that I may always desire more than I can

"Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock
and the door will be opened to you"....Christ

They also arise when we are not satisfied with an existing state of being

and we set ourselves towards a projected state of being ( a projection

that may be changed or modified as one progresses.)

"Strong lives are motivated by dynamic purposes ; lesser ones
exist on wishes and inclinations"....Kenneth Hildebrand

In a new born being , the most basic and primary goal is that of survival

which is inbuilt and which more or less remains the most potent goal in

the life of the being . Most other goals, even social goals, can said to be

 secondary offshoots of this most powerful driving force of the self.

"Life begins as a quest of the child for the man and ends as a journey
by the man to rediscover the child".......Laurens Van der Post

"Security is mostly a superstition. Life is either a daring adventure
or nothing." ......Helen Keller

Apart from this primary inbuilt control program for physical survival, there

are other "general purpose control programs", distinct from the primal

survival programs whose functions are less well defined but the

general nature of these is to seek a secondary "goal

seeking metaprogram."

"A sense of curiosity is nature's original school of education."
......Smiley Blanton

"I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious."- Einstein

In the simplest of language this can be termed as "curiosity metaprograms",

whose function is a property of the "intelligence hardware " - the cortex

and neo-cortex, but in a deeper sense this curiosity is not merely a physical

hardwired capacity, rather in more specific instances an indication or

first emergence or first manifestation of non-physical capacity - Will.

"A young and vital child knows no limit to his own will . . . . It is not that
he wants at the outset to fight other wills, but that they simply do not
exist for him. Like the artist, he goes forth to the work of creation,
gloriously alone".......Jane Harrison

"Curiosity is free-wheeling intelligence'.....Alistair Cooke

"If you want to build a ship, don't herd people together to collect wood and don't
assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless
immensity of the sea." - Antoine de Saint-Exupery

These capacities, whether physical or non-physical, tend to become active

when the primary goals are in neutral state or a satisfied state, that is, the

primary survival control programs are inactive.

The main function of these "Goal seeking programs" is to seek stimulus -

primarily  sensory input  stimuli  to  satisfy  its control requirements. In

other words,  we can say that the higher intelligence functions generate

curiosity metaprograms that seek stimuli of a higher order of satisfaction

or  fulfillment than those provided by the fixed survival programs, ( once

these primal control programs are in a state of fulfillment).

One example of a higher order purpose than a material oriented purpose

is the 'quest for integrated knowledge' or philosophy - a word which although

literally means 'love of wisdom' ( from the Greek Philo (meaning love)  and Sophia

(meaning wisdom)), is represented here as a quest for knowledge that integrates

the self, that is, in other words the quest arising from the desire to attain a

projected state of integrity of the self. Another example can be the desire or

purpose to attain a state of being whereby one gains access to sources of

knowledge or sources of  power (daemon) which guide/help one's actions under

critical or crucial conditions: eudaemonia (Greek) which in oversimplified terms

translates to 'happiness', a word that can be misleading, actually translates

to 'a state in which one is guided by a good spirit' ( in Greek 'eu' is prefix for

 good and 'daemon' means 'a supernatural being' or 'guardian spirit'.

The following passage is demonstrative of this point, as also serves the

purpose of provoking the reader to think deeply about it :

"Aristotle does not equate desire with good, i.e., he does not think that the
good is whatever we desire. Desire is to good what belief is to truth. Next
he says that there are some things that we desire for the sake of other
things (these are therefore means) , like money or tools or medicine.
And there are other things that we desire for their own sake - like pleasure
and beauty and truth. This is the distinction between what is called means
and ends. That narrows down our investigation because we are looking
for the good as the end, and more specifically:  the final end - the end
of all ends. The question: what good is all of it? What good is human life?
What is it all for? That there is some final end is assumed for if we choose
something for something else that process can go on to infinity, so our
all our desires would be empty and vain. There has to be a last end - a
thing desired for its own sake in order to motivate us to desire all the
means to that end, for if nothing is good or desirable of itself, then
nothing is worth having just for the sake of having it, and nothing really
would be good or desirable at all. Life would be a merry go round that
would go nowhere.
The question of the greatest good hard to answer in real content, but
easy to answer in words - and Aristotle says that it is generally agreed
that it is happiness. So for Aristotle t
he final good is happiness, but as
 to what happiness is, people differ.
It is happiness, Aristotle points out, is what everyone seeks. No one
wants to be unhappy, and everyone seeks to be happy as an end, not
as means. No one says 'what good is happiness if it can't buy money?',
but some people do say ' what good is money if it can't buy happiness?'
So people differ about the means, but they have the same end - happiness.
But the two Greek words that Aristotle uses for happiness, both mean
something more than just subjective contentment. One of them, 'makarios'
means blessedness -  is stronger than the other word 'eudaemonia'  which
Aristotle usually uses. I think it is misleading to translate this word into the
English word 'happiness', because the word 'happiness' comes from "happen'
 and both are from the root word 'hap' , an old English word which means 'luck'
or 'chance' ( like winning a lottery). We think of happiness as something that
happens, like good luck. It has nothing to do with how good you are, it happens
by chance - and it's temporary.
But eudaemonia means something different in all three ways: it has everything
to do with how good you are; and it happens not by chance but by choice; and
it's lasting. The first syllable 'eu' means 'good', the second 'daemon' means 'spirit'
or 'soul', and the last syllable 'ia' makes it into a noun, which means an objectively
real and lasting state or nature.
So 'eudaemonia' means 'an objectively real, lasting state of having a good soul'.
It contains three connotations that the English word 'happiness' does not :
first you have to be good to be happy, second it's in the soul and not in the body,
not in the external goods of fortune like good luck and third and most important
of all : that it is objectively real state or nature, so you can't be mistaken about
it. In English it makes no sense to say to someone: 'you think you are happy, but
you are not', or ' you think you are not happy but you are'. But in Greek it does
make sense.
One test of this is in regard` to suffering : could suffering be part of happiness?
Not in modern English. But in ancient Greece, yes. Aristotle or Aesculus or
Sophocles or Plato would say ' you cannot be truly happy unless you are wise,
and you cannot be truly wise unless you suffer. As a Rabbi put it : the man who
didn't suffer, what could he possibly know anyway?
I think the English word 'blessedness' comes closer to 'what Aristotle means by
'eudaemonia'. You can think you are blessed, but be wrong if you have just
inherited a castle that will wipe you out in taxes, and you can think you are
not blessed when you are. That is why we sometimes tell people to count
your blessings, implying that we can really be blessed without realizing it,
until the blessings we take for granted, disappear.
So here is the final definition by Aristotle : Happiness is the activity of
the soul in accordance with virtue."
....................................................................................TMS P. Kreeft

"That dear delight, when the love of a modestly elusive truth
seemed more glorious incomparably than the lust of the flesh
 and the dross of the world."........Plato

It is important to note that the secondary control metaprograms do not override

the primary control programs, rather are subservient to them.  It is only at an

advanced  state  of  structural  development  does  the being's self -developed

control metaprograms are "able" to accomplish control over the primal ones.

   "The first principle of ethical power is Purpose. By purpose, I don't mean your
objective or intention - something toward which you are always striving.
Purpose is something bigger. It is the picture you have of yourself-the
kind of person you want to be"...........
Kenneth Blanchard

DEFINITIONA Purpose is a consciously realized or developed "Goal seeking

Program"  or in other words, a self-developed control program that seeks

to accomplish something or attain a state of mind or state of being.

"The aims of life are the best defense against death"......Primo Levi

"Not to engage in the pursuit of ideas is to live like ants
instead of men"....Mortimer Adler

A Purpose/s is sort of necessary in order to realize one's potential, and

yet, just the accomplishment of these Purposes is by itself may not be as

rewarding as the process of reaching towards these purposes

( in terms of experience gained, realizations made).

"When you reach for the stars, you may not quite get one, but you
won't come up with a handful of mud either"...........Leo Burnette

"It is stern work, it is perilous work to thrust your hand in the sun
And pull out a spark of immortal flame to warm the hearts of men."
..........Joyce Kilmer

Without consciously realized or developed Goals ( Purposes ), the Goals

generated by the default operations of the subconscious then become the

eventual control programs that determine almost all of the behavior.

"All good is hard. All evil is easy. Dying, losing, cheating, and mediocrity
is easy. Stay away from easy......Scott Alexander

Although having purpose is necessary for self-realization and the complete

development of one's own potential, a purpose by itself is not sufficient,

at least for the Right development of one's potential.

The other vital element for this is :

"Power" or "Spirit" and thereby its manifest medium - Will.

"You can do anything you want to do, if you know what to do"....Betty Carter

"If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it, I know I can
achieve it."....Jesse Jackson



"The nature of Spirit may be understood by a glance at its direct opposite—
Matter. As the essence of Matter is Gravity, so...we may affirm that the
substance, the essence of Spirit is Freedom."............ Hegel

Is that hidden essence of nature that creates, sustains and

animates all life forms and even resources in the world.

The animating and dynamic manifestation or emanation of

the essence of reality. The moral guiding force.

Although this sounds sort of religious, but is not meant to be so. It

is possible to know, realize and express oneself without the use of the

concept of spirit, soul etc.  But  in  this  work  of  personal validity,

metaphysical concepts like soul, spirit , essence etc are considered

as valuable conceptual tools; with the understanding that these are

not definitive concepts that can be defined or measured by physical

concepts, but only to be used sparingly and artistically as and

when an expression demands their usage as necessary for

complete expression.

Frivolous and redundant use must be avoided.

An attempt has therefore been made to visualize these metaphysical

concepts in as open a manner as possible, so that the usage of these

in any expression will necessitate a creative or imaginative effort

upon the part of the user.

This is vital in order to avoid the traps into which all religions fall into,

that is, the trap of trying to institutionalize or systematize that which can

never ever be confined within definitive or limited institutional or

systemic parameters. Any conceptualization of the Spirit is therefore

essentially and necessarily only a personal one, not subject to

agreement of any sort, and definitely cannot be objectified.

Furthermore, another warning is in order here : Without any

personal experience to support any concept, specially

metaphysical concepts like Spirit, makes their use in

any expression meaningless and misleading.



"In keeping with its original wind-nature, spirit is always an active, winged,
swift-moving being as well as that which vilifies, stimulates, incites, fires,
and inspires. To put it in modern language, spirit is the dynamic principle,
forming  for  that  very  reason  the  classic   antithesis  of  matter  -  the
antithesis that is, of its stasis and inertia.

Basically it is the contrast between life and death"
........C. G. Jung.

( WARNING !  Any understanding, any conception of

the Spirit must be based upon direct personal experience

and not induced, inferred from other sources )

1.  The foremost conceptualization of the Spirit is that it is the

dynamic or instantaneous manifestation of the essence of all life.

The essence of all life is conceived here as the soul.

Thus the soul is the vital timeless essence, the real substance, the

real value underlying all life, and the spirit is the meta-force that

animates the body and soul in a living being.

The Spirit is the animating life force of a living being, the force of

its real value and worth.

"In so far as the spirit is also a kind of "window on eternity"... it conveys
 to the soul a certain influx divinus... and the knowledge of a higher system
of the world, wherein consists precisely its supposed animation of the soul"

2. The Spirit is that force or Power that CAUSES OR FORCES

RIGHTFUL  ACTION. By that is meant that the the Spirit is

that MORAL FORCE that gives the RIGHT DIRECTION to the

WILLFUL actions and expressions of a being.

3. It is that which rarely bids an action, but that which FORBIDS

wrongful action by a being, by causing EMPATHY and COMPASSION

within a being towards other beings.

4. The force that makes the soul or essence of a being alive and

accessible to the being, as that which then makes a being aware of

one's inner predilections, goals and purposes. The potentiating

force of the essence of a being.

" The state to which death restores us is our original state - that is
to say the one peculiar to our true nature, whose essential force
manifests itself by producing and maintaining the life that we lose
in death.".......Schopenhauer

5. Another conception that also has significance is that of Spirit as

Energy or Power, i.e., that which energizes or empowers.  Here in

this work, Spirit is that energy that is recognized as the resource

behind Power, especially personal Power, which is a derived

combination of Spirit and one's developed physical faculty of

intelligence and its manifest direction or director -  Will.

6. As Potency : Two kinds of potencies are indicated here : The

Spirit as the source and resource for Moral potency and

Intelligence as a potency that potentates the Will.

7. As a guiding force of one's creativity as well as destiny, as that

essence that transcends death as a consequence of one's creative

actions or expressions.

8 . Sustaining Resource : As a world resource of sustenance, that

when used, regenerates, but its disuse depletes this resource.

The critical depletion means that the world cannot sustain,

and that life will self - destruct as a consequence.

"Every human being has, like Socrates, an attendant spirit; and wise
are they who obey its signals. If it does not always tell us what to do,
it always cautions us what not to do"....Lydia Maria Child


The following are some generalizations about how the Spirit manifests,

and it is important to note  ( WARNING ! ) at the outset that these

generalizations are only indicative and not definitive :

The Spirit in order to manifest or regenerate in a being, requires as a

rule ( but there can be exception to this ) the being to bid for it by

forceful and Willful actions in which the being seeks the right

course of  action in accordance or in harmony  with

one's predilections or one's own realized

( or in the process of  realization )

core nature ( soul).

[ Web Interactive 2012 : There are very few general statements or attributes that can
 be made about the concept of soul.  The first is that it is 'immaterial', secondly that it is
'intangible', the third that it is essentially qualitative rather than quantitative ( sorry, it can't
 be measured).
The concept stands for the essence of reality that is transcendental, meaning that it will
be there even at the end of the material world and at the end of time (Eternity).
Thus it cannot come in the domain of scientific testing or proving, the usage of this
metaphysical concept is in the domain of the creative individual. ]

Thus we can say that Willfully and forcefully seeking the Right

course in all of one's actions and expressions constitutes a bid

for the Spirit.

The Spirit demands a passionate bidding on the part of a being - a bidding

in which the price can be, and as a rule is, as high as death. A being

therefore  can   only  approach  the  Spirit  when the Will of the being has

conquered or overpowered one's own survival force. When mere survival

and social conformity have be cast aside, though not carelessly.

When a being has accepted completely, death as a constant companion ;

to take the being  where ever and when ever it comes. The constant

awareness of death as the only force that can overcome the survival

force, so that the manifestation of the Spirit is possible.

The Spirit, as a rule, cannot manifest in a being who is passive, or who

seeks only to escape from the cycle of life and death, or who seeks an

easy way out, or who does not take full responsibility for the condition

of life ( personal, social and environmental ) in which the being exists.


The Spirit will accept the genuine bid, but will put the bidder to the

test of this genuineness in a situation where the bidder's life itself is

likely to be at stake, or at the very least one's physical security, ( or

financial security ! ) social acceptance, comfort or well being may

well need to be sacrificed.

"Sacrifice is usually irrational and basically in conflict with previously
understood notions of right and wrong. Subsequently we often discover our
purpose in life through an irrational leap of faith that has little or nothing
 to do with the ethical - and this is the truly religious - this is how anyone
gives his life a consuming purpose - by believing in himself - as anything
from and artist to a future PM, or a stand up comedian.".....Kierkegaard.

"Continence or moderation ( Greek: Engkrateia) is the most important virtue
 that Xenophon associates with Socrates. This amazing moderation can be
because of two things: that Socrates was indifferent to this or that pleasure
so he was pretty easily able to turn away from pleasure and secondly also
able to withstand it. The crucial question is: why? For the sake of what did
he exercise this impressive capacity to say no to himself? One answer
immediately presents itself: simply in order to think and to philosophize better.
His apparently great capacity for self sacrifice, to go without; in other words is
actually a clear sided assessment of what is and what is not needed to lead
the life that he thought was best for himself. So this term self-sacrifice isn't
properly applied to Socrates or to his continence, instead Socrates weighed
for himself the alternatives before him, and chose the one most conducive to
philosophize. " TTC...R. C. Bartlett


How and when this happens can never be known beforehand, but the

seeker must be always prepared, or perpetually on one's toes, or at

the very least open to the possibility of this occurring even in the most

bizarre or unlikely of conditions. The most probable indication of

this occurrence is when a personal crisis faces the seeker.


The serious bidder who fails the test, if lucky, dies, or worse, turns into a

destructive creature. But the bidder who is successful, will then have to

further first attune or harmonize one's Will to the Spirit and only then,

interpret (with developed or learned knowledge and  intelligence )

and act  upon  the  command of the Spirit for the rest of one's life, as

and when required, or as and when the Spirit makes its own bidding.

Only that part of the "Spirit of the World" or "Great Spirit "is accessible for

use  to a being  that is in accordance and predilection to one's given

nature. ( Limited access ). However this access can be enhanced and

expanded by one's  creative actions.

How far and wide one can go will depend upon one's own developed

and realized Will. The quality of interpretation and its expression mostly

depend upon one's own  developed knowledge, intelligence and Will.

Its social and environmental applicability will reflect its essence, though it

can never be measured by any fixed standards, only by its potential for

transforming other beings into unique and creative individuals.


Spirit or Moral Power is only as good as, and effective, as long

as it is put to use in actions that have life enhancing results.

Although everyone at birth has a minimal quantum of moral

power, in this age and times, this is easily lost or dissipated

in most people in the process of making a living. The only

way it can be retained and even enhanced is by right

actions and decisions at crucial junctures early in one's

life, especially those actions that are creative : that is,

not related to anything in the past.

Right action comes before everything else.

"When we rank the good things in life, if we put first things first and second
things second, we could hope to get both. If we put second things first then
we not only miss out on the first things but also on the second things.
We undermine and pervert or destroy second things by putting them first.
What does civilization put first ? Survival itself. Material and quantitative
goods in life. But if we don't know why we should survive, we probably
won't survive very long. Cultures have given many different answers to
the question why should we survive and at least some reason, some
motive to live for. If our only motive for living is living longer or surviving,
we endanger our survival. As a hypochondriac endangers his health by
idealizing it. If the ships don't know why they are at sea, they will almost
certainly fail. This apparently abstract philosophical question of the
greatest good, the meaning of life is really the most practical question
we can possibly ask. In ethics if we have no answer to this question
of the greatest good, it is not likely that we will attain lesser goods, if
these lesser goods are all the second things, that is, means to the end
of the first thing."............TMS. P. Kreeft

What one expresses in a creative manner is therefore even

more important than what one only experiences.

And this is the only general command of the Spirit :

Its reflection in creative action and expression.



The Spirit weakens, depletes and recedes by wrongful, destructive,

deceitful and abusive actions, but regenerates by righteous, creative,

constructive and inspiring actions and expressions. The bottom line

is : what are one's actions and expressions inducing others to do or

emulate as an example.

Do one's actions inspire others to be creative or to be destructive ?

Or do they induce others into dull conformity and escape from responsibility ?

Does one's expressions point out the dividing line between Right and Wrong ?

Do they help in differentiating truth from falsehood, and do they throw any

light on that thin dividing line between creativity and destructivity ?

Supplementary article : Spirit


2.7.3 THE WILL

How happy is he born or taught,
That serveth not another's will;
Whose armour is his honest thought,
And simple truth his utmost skill!
......Henry Wotton

"For what is liberty but the unhampered translation
of Will into act?".....
Georges Jacques Danton

" Our will is always for our own good, but we do not
always see what that is"... Jean Jacques Rousseau

DEFINITION : Will is that property or attribute of a being whose

manifestation, realization and expression are the hallmarks of the true

individual. So it can be said that a being's potential is realized through

the strength and power of the being's Will in harmony and support of

the faculties of reason, intuition, emotions as well as the

instinctive faculty.

Champions aren't made in gyms. Champions are made from something
they have deep inside them-a desire, a dream, a vision. They have to
have the skill, and the will. But the will must be stronger than the skill.
..........Muhammad Ali

And so it can be said that the Will has power to accomplish.

"I believe in one thing only, the power of human Will"
.....J Stalin

"A man can do all things if he but wills them"...Leon Battista Alberti

Will is the subtle driving force that arises from within but is

distinct from the survival force or the moral force (spirit), it

however can and does align with either. The Will in order to

be morally potent must be consciously realized, developed

and sustained in support to and from the spirit.


The Will can also be considered as a resultant of one's talents &

predilections ( these may be physical, that is, hardwired or these

may be non-physical or a combination of both) whether these are

inbuilt or developed.


Will is thus indicative of direction and purpose.


For  a start,  there  must  be  some  cognition  of  the   Will,  and

only   through  experience, experiment  and  expression  can

the  Will   be  developed  further,  in  order  for  it  to become a

powerful   and  potent  force.  A  complete  realization  of   the

Will leads to the totality of a being, once the being has been

able  to achieve a minimal  integration of the resources and

faculties ( integration of the sub and supra conscious ) of

the being.

This integrated totality of a being opens up endless

possibilities to further develop the Will, that once

emerged from the past, into the future as Intent.

To what extent the Will can be expanded depends

upon the remaining resources available for the

being, in terms of Time and 'Energy', once the

being has a certain grasp of its totality.


The expression of  one's realized and developed Will is what

constitutes the uniqueness of the individual, the lack of which

means that one is then subject solely to the Will of others and

entirely dependent upon social and cultural norms that

then determines choices and behavior.

" Kant says that there is only one thing in this world or even out of
it that is good without qualification - and that is a "good will ". A
good will needs no qualification - it is good in itself."
……..Rick Roderick ( TTC – Philosophy and Human Values )

Will is a tricky affair when one realizes that one's Will indicates

abstract or un-definable goals. In this case one has to be sensitive

to the manifestation of the onset of one's Will, the conditions and

the interpreted indications by fine tuning one's intuitive and

instinctive faculties.

"Patience is the mother of will".....Gurdjieff

Certain eastern culture's religious practices aim at diminishing

the will down to non-existence, since the Will, especially strong

Will is associated with ego and is perceived to be destructive.

Although it is true that a strong will is likely to be destructive,

however without strong will there can be no creativity either,

and a society that does not value this, degenerates rapidly,

since no social change or transformation (required with time)

can take place without providing a space for strong willed


"Human beings cannot be willed and molded into
nonexistence.".......Angela Davies

“Nietzsche simply turned Schopenhauer’s idea of the will on its head
– instead of the world being driven by a blind, evil will which can be
combated  only with an ascetic withdrawal, Nietzsche advocated the
 will to power – here lay the driving force within all human nature ;
and the great men of History is its finest manifestation.”
…. Paul Strathern on Schopenhauer

A society that does not take risks, only churns out dummies of

idealized people, who can do nothing else except supervise

temples or churches or indulge in meaningless rituals. They

can only teach  fatalism of the worst kind in which every

thing, including destruction is to be accepted as inevitable.

It is only exceptional and strong willed individuals that can

correct the course of society and save it from degeneration.

"It is not by spectacular achievements that man can be

transformed, but by Will."......Henrik Ibsen

In this work then, Will is understood as a personal attribute

of the self, that has a potency and potential that is vital for

not only creativity but also for the realization and complete

development of a unique self, and finally to develop the Will

as a force projecting into the future as Intent.

"You must take the Will for the deed"............Jonathan Swift

"We shall not be asked what we have read, but what we have done".
........Thomas Kempis

"When we are doing the will of our true Self, we are
inevitably doing the will of the universe."...Alan Moore

WEB Interactive 2013:  The counter-concept of Will is Fate. Events that are bound to happen,
come what may, are called fate which unfold according to the force of necessity, whereas
our attitudes and responses to fate and which transcend fate are the result of our exercise of Will. 
Fate is the given situation one 'finds' oneself in, and Will is the conscious action and response to
 the given situation. The concept of 'free will' means those attitudes, actions and choices that
 are 'free from' ( i.e. not dependent upon) social, cultural norms or scientific data or 'laws of nature'.
Will is individual or personal power ( Will to power - Nietzsche) as differentiated from the force
 of necessity which is impersonal. (Schopenhauer failed to make that distinction)

No scientific data or 'laws of nature' or neuro-scientific data can detect the exercise of 'Free Will'
because it's manifest is absolutely spontaneous, in the instant or moment ( meaning - not
 dependent upon the events of the past).

Will is thus a metaphysical force, meaning that it is independent of the physical laws. The
 manifestation of the Will is mostly through the non-linear operations of the brain (right side),
therefore Will cannot essentially be comprehended or conceived by the linear (rational)
operations of the brain (left side).

WEB INT 2013: ff 'Will' is confusing, there is yet an even more elusive
force - Spirit - I call it the 'joker in the pack' that is the dynamic
counterpart of Will, which does not command action but without
which the Will  cannot attain moral integrity in an individual.


2.7.4 MORAL POWER ( Spirit )  Vs WILL POWER


"All forms of consciousness are seen here as 'intentional', in other
words, consciousness is always purposive. We see the world we do
because of what we intend to do to it. The individual sees the world
that he wills to see - and this depends upon the values he has chosen
 - the ones he lives by - the ones that make him what he is."
....Paul Strathern on Kierkegaard

It is critically important to distinguish between Moral power and Will

power, for to not make this distinction can completely alter the course

of a being's life at crucial junctures.

To examine this relationship further, one can say that without Will,

power is useless socially, ( i.e., for a positive social cause), at best only

for personal enlightenment or escape into isolation. Power in that

case only works to diminish one's desires to nothing, to attain a

state of tranquility or nirvana or nothingness.

The only problem perceived in this work of Personal Validity with

having no Will, or diminishing one's Will to extinction is that there

is no expressive, creative or contributory value to society in this,

whereas the individual always has a price to pay to society and

the world for the resources so consumed. The assumption in this

work is that there is no escape from this responsibility.

The Will therefore is considered in this work as a vital element

of the Self : a central force : to be realized, developed and

expressed and in doing so acquires power and potency.

That this Will power can be constructive or destructive depends

upon moral power. The two kinds of power are not as separate

as the analysis seems to indicate, rather they are intertwined,

they compete, oppose as well as compliment each other, and

together constitute what can be called personal power whose

manifest results in actions generates INTENT.

Therefore Intent is the resultant of Spirit and Will.

Intent is generated as a result of forceful actions.

All Willful actions generate Intent.

"Every action of our lives touches on some chord that will
vibrate in eternity.".......E. H. Chapin

"A human act once set in motion flows on forever to the great
account. Our deathlessness is in what we do, not in what
 we are".........
George Meredith

Even the simple defiance of a tyrannical authority or

order generates positive ( regenerative ) intent, as

does suffering under oppressive people, although

at times a mere passive resistance is not enough.

"Man is born to act. To act is to affirm the worth of an end,
and to affirm the worth of an end, is to create an ideal."
..............Oliver Wendell Holmes

The conceptual line between Spirit, Will and Intent is blurred

and so requires careful handling of the usage of these terms.

Specifically, the Spirit does not indicate purpose, Will does.

The Spirit is necessary as well as the catalyst for internal

transformation or change of attitudes for ascending moral

integrity, whereas the Will is the agent for external or

social transformation.

The Will cannot command or force the Spirit,  whereas the

Spirit can direct or initiate the Will.

The Spirit cannot force action or actionable doing, the Will does.

Both are essential for the realization as well as expressions of

the totality or essence of one's being.

Broadly speaking, Spirit is the primary and moral power, that is both

individual and collective to the beings in a world, Will is that individual

predilection that constitutes the motivating and potent driving force of

a being that combined with the faculties of intellect, intelligence and

instinct, generates goals, directions and purposes, and  Intent is the

resultant of the actions of a being, that becomes Will for the

being/s of the future.

"Every action of ours is passed on to others according to its value, of good
or evil, it passes from father to son, from one generation to the next, in a
perpetual movement"......Antonio Gramsci

The only way a being can project something into the future is through

an act, not by inaction. And for reality to maintain a moral sequence, all

our present actions will find a reflection or an account in the future.

Intent is the medium of all the results of our actions.

"When I investigate and when I discover that the forces of the heavens
and the planets are within ourselves, then truly I seem to be living
among the gods"...........
Leon Battista Alberti



"Treat a person as he is, and he will remain as he is. Treat a person as if
he were where he could be and should be, and he will become what he
could be and should be"........Jimmy Johnson

"We spend January 1 walking through our lives, room by room, drawing up a
list of work to be done, cracks to be patched. Maybe this year, to balance
the list, we ought to walk through the rooms of our lives . . ., not looking
for flaws, but for potential"......Ellen Goodman


A capability or inherent capacity to attain, reach for, interact,

develop, perceive or experience. The given hardware (brain) has

a certain potential for intelligence, understanding or intuiting.

The overall biological being has a potential for instinct. And

beyond this there is an unknown potential of the non-physical

self.  Not much can be said about this hidden potential except

that this must be in harmony with the physical potentials or

else the individual can come close to an unstable state that

can be personally damaging. Alternately, the hidden may get

suppressed and ineffective, leading one to a deceptive state

of existence (very common).

It must be noticed that the inherent property of the non-

physical self is to remain latent and hidden. Although

it is very active in a new born child, with growth and

development of the physical structures ( the brain, mind

etc ) this aspect of the self recedes increasingly into the

background, i.e., not in the active conscious operations,

and may even get totally suppressed by the physical

operations and their requirements for survival.

"A tragic irony of life is that we so often achieve success or
financial independence after the chief reason for which we
sought it has passed away.".........Ellen Glasgow

But the physical development is also a necessary process

and the key is to regain access to that hidden potential

before the physical has completely obliterated its


The non-physical potential can only be realized, whereas the

physical ( brain, intelligence) potential has to be first developed

as Will and into Power and only then can the non-physical

potential be manifest and realized.

Without development of the physical potential, the

non-physical potential gets sharply limited and inhibited.

By making the willful right choices, the potential of the two types

compliment each other, but by making willful wrong choices, the

real potential ( non-physical) dies out

"There is something that is much more scarce, something rarer
than ability. It is the ability to recognize ability"......Robert Half

Finally : A given potential has limits

"We are all faced with a series of great opportunities brilliantly
disguised as impossible situations.".....Charles Swindoll


2.7.6 LIMITS

"I believe strongly in the doctrine of limitations  - that everything, a tree, a
poem, a human relationship , lives and thrives by the limits imposed on it"
......Cecil Day-Lewis

"The miracle is not to fly in the air, or to walk on the water, but to
walk on this earth."..........Chinese saying.

"We never know what is enough until we know what's more
than enough."......Billie Holiday

"If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples
then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have
 an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas."
- George Bernard Shaw

Whereas every being has a potential to be explored and expressed, this

potential and from it the developed force of the Will, has definite limitations

in the context of time and space.

"All of us confront limits of body, talent, temperament. But that is
not all. We are, all of us, also constrained by our time, our place,
our civilization....Jeane Kirkpatrick

"Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree,
it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid." - Albert Einstein

While there may be no limitation in terms of what one may experience, in the

physical realm of time and space there are limits to what one may accomplish.

But these limits are not well defined and are knowable only by personal

experiment and experience.

"He is able who thinks he is able"......Buddha

What is of greater significance is that limits are themselves indicative of one's

capabilities or even predilections. Although most limitations are self-imposed,

but this is not consciously realized, and to breakthrough a certain limit

is a challenge that offers windows of opportunity for self analysis and


"Every man takes the limits of his own field of vision for the limits of
the world."......... Schopenhauer

"Sometimes it is more important to discover what one cannot do,
than what one can do. The secret of contentment is knowing how
to enjoy what you have, and to be able to lose all desire for things
beyond your reach.".....Lin Yu-t'ang

Again not every limit or perceived limit is worthwhile taking on and one must

always keep in mind one's overall purpose and Will, for many limitations have

an inherent property only to test one's Will as well as one's worth.

"Impossibilities are merely things of which we have not learned,
or which we do not wish to happen."...Charles W Chesnutt

"Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take
 your eyes off the goal".....Hannah More

Whatever constitutes a perceived limit is after all only defined by

one's own uniqueness and purpose. Limits are best seen in light of

the tests and challenges that these offer, and whether it is valid or

appropriate for oneself to take on or avoid  and accept.

"There's much to be said for challenging fate instead
of ducking behind it".....Diane Trilling

"Understand that most problems are a good sign. Problems indicate that
progress is being made, wheels are turning, you are moving toward your
goals.  Beware when you have no problems.  Then you've really got a
problem . . .".......Scott Alexander

"What Heidegger calls our immersion in our everyday world necessarily
involves these two aspects - facticity and transcendence, recalling the
essentially temporal dimension of human existence, these two aspects can
be called our ecstatic past and future respectively. Heidegger is the source
of the three fold account of this ecstatic temporality, namely: one - the past
as facticity or thrown-ness, we come on the scene not with a blank slate
but already with a past; two - the future as existence or standing out - we
live in the not yet - the possible; and three - the present as immersion in the
flood of our everyday concerns. Of these three ecstatic dimensions, that of
the future as the possible is most important. We are creatures of the possible.
Even the recovering alcoholic who  tries to live one day at a time cannot avoid
 the specter of the future. The reformed gambler must renew his commitment
every time he nears the game room.
Existential anguish is our experience of the possible as the locus of our
freedom. An old joke describes a man falling from a very high building -
as he falls past the thirteenth floor, someone shouts:' how are you doing',
to which he optimistically replies: 'so far so good'. What is tragically
laughable is this person's disregard for the dimension of the possible that
is essential to his situation - a possibility that is diminishing rapidly."
.....Thomas Flynn

With these basic concepts as link and support, and with the assumptions

as the starting point, the next part now proceeds into the core of this work

... Personal Validity



NEXT PAGE 11:   PART 3  3.1 What is Personal Validity?




epistemology, philosophy, metaphysics, religion, belief, system, social, cultural, paradigm, knowledge,
ontology, power, moral, fundamental, force, Will, Spirit, Intent, knowing, Heart, Mind, reason, intuition,
autonomous, unique, being, existence, space, time, meaning, purpose

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